Mumiye is a nontoxic product (LDmin - 3020 mg/kg, LD50 - 6454 mg/kg and LD100 - 9000 mg/kg of body mass). (Minimum toxic dose for white mice, single administration, Nuraliev 1985). Mumiye does not have teratogenic or abortive effects. The intake of 5-10 mg of Mumiye has a pharmacological effect. A therapeutic effect is best seen upon the intake of 1.5-2 mg/kg of body mass. A toxic effect of Mumiye is observed upon a prolonged intake of at least 1 g/day.

Influence on blood corpuscles

It has been established that mumiye boosts white and red blood cells counts, as well as the level of hemoglobin and platelets count in the peripheral blood. Moreover, according to WBC differential count, myelogram and splenogram, myeloid cells dominate in the white blood cells formation. (Moomoiyo stimulates hematopoiesis through pituitary-adrenocortical axis system). Mommiyo has a therapeutic effect in cases of radiation and toxic injuries of hematopoietic systems (Radiotherapy suppresses reticuloendothelial system. Thus, anti-inflammatory and overall positive effect on the functions of liver account for the protective and therapeutic effect of mumiye). Mumiye affects every event in the chain of pathogenesis of posthemorrhagic anemia (It enhances erythronormoblastic reaction in bone marrow, normalizes myelogram finding. Myeloblasts, promyelocytes and reticulocytes growth is particularly evident). The preparation normalizes red blood cells morphology (It increases the mean concentration of hemoglobin in a red blood cell, mean corpuscular volume of a red blood cell, its mean diameter and surface). Mumiye also stabilizes and protects red blood cells.

Influence on liver function

Mumiye stimulates protein generation function in liver as well as its reticuloendothelial system activity. Therapeutic doses of Mumiye increase the liver relative weight and glycogen amount. Other effects include the increase of protein amount, the inhibition of proteolysis in liver, decreased amount of beta-lipoproteins and albumins, and increased amount of alpha- and beta-globulins. Mumiye also improves liver hemodynamics and antitoxic and excretory functions of this organ. It also decreases pressure in the portal vein, improves penetration of the liver sinusoids, and has an overall positive effect on fractional liver blood flow and autolipolytic activity of the organ (Mumiye decreases peroxidation of lipids in liver mitochondria. It also has a distinct antioxidant effect which accounts for the anti-inflammatory effect of therapeutic doses of Mumiye. Mumiye enhances coupling in the process of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria through inhibition of cell respiration at rest. Iinhibition of the transfer of electrons in the respiratory chain takes place due to Mumiye-induced activity changes in NAD enzymes (N-oxidase, succinateoxidase, cytochrome C, oxidase). As a result, Mumiye demonstrates a significant anti-toxic effect in relation to hepatotoxic substances. It has a therapeutic effect in cases of secondary affection of liver and toxic hepatites.

The preparation causes a certain reduction of blood sugar due to the increased level of glycogen in liver, skeletal and heart muscles.

Influence on respiration, cardio-vascular system and urination

Mumiye causes an insignificant increase of blood pressure and heart rate and slowing of respiratory rhythm. Such reactions are observed upon the increase of dosage and do not last long. (The influence of Mumiye on blood pressure is related to the presence of mineral components in it).

The preparation is very effective in myocardial infarction. It normalizes upset metabolic and regulatory processes in myocardium and particularly in the focus of necrosis and peri-infarction zone (boosts the glycogen content in the infarction and peri-infarction zones. As a result, aerobic hydrocarbon metabolism, which is a feature of a healthy heart muscle, replaces anaerobic hydrocarbon metabolism. The preparation increases the amount of lipids, fatty acids, phospholipids, triglycerides, ATP and ADP, creatine phosphoric acid, iron, and copper. It also improves the transferrin and ceruloplasmin activities). In the long run, Mumiye normalizes a disturbed metabolism of hydrocarbons, proteins, fats, and minerals and creates favorable conditions for reparative regeneration of the heart muscle (under the influence of the preparation the infarction zone is replaced with mature connective tissue). Mumiye corrects biochemical disturbances, thus, normalizing coronary circulation and cardiac activity (Mumiye intensifies intercellular metabolism and stimulates accepting abilities of cardiac myocytes). Mumiye possesses adrenaline-positive properties and stimulates reparative regeneration processes in myocardium tissues really well. These factors give it the advantage over cardiac glycosides (Infarction causes depletion of adrenaline metabolism).

Mumiye demonstrates a significant diuretic effect which manifests itself more clearly with increased dosage (Hippuric acid that has a diuretic action as well as anti-inflammatory characteristics of the preparation account for its diuretic effect).

Influence on digestive tract functions

Mumiye has a slight antispasmodic effect (depression of intestinal tonus is connected with a direct influence of the preparation on smooth muscles of intestinal surface and blocking of histamine and serotonin-dependant structures of intestine). Mumiye has a distinct choleretic action. In accordance with its characteristics it can be attributed to the group of cholekinetics. (Mumiye relieves the increased muscle tone of smooth muscles in bile duct and facilitates draining of bile into the intestine. The cholesterol and bilirubin concentrations in bile do not change).

Influence on the nervous system

Mumiye has a sedative effect which is a result of its influence primarily on the brain cortex. (The action of Moomyio can potentiate the effect of sleep inducers, in particular, chloral hydrate). However, large doses of Mumiye cause excitement, insomnia, and formication. (Mumiye stimulates limbic system and nerves in the spinal cord, thus enhancing the brain cortex ability to summate. It is the result of mumiye interference in the activity of serotonin- and adrenergic systems in the form of changes in serotonin and noradrenalin metabolism (Mumiye possesses adrenopositive and antiserotonin features). Hence, the influence of Mumiye on the CNS has a mosaic character: it suppresses brain cortex and stimulates diencephalon, mesencephalon and intercalary neurons of spinal cord. The combination of these opposite effects is a result of the product�s complex composition. Various components may have completely different physiological effects.

Antibacterial effect

Only strong solutions of Mumiye (5-10%) demonstrate a bacteriostatic effect against wound infections agents (aurococcus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Proteus vulgaris, blue pus bacillus and collibacillus). This is a result of osmotic activity of concentrated solutions. Mumiye solution greatly suppresses the production of aggressive enzymes by bacteria (coagulase, fibrinolysin, hyaluronidase, phospholipase, alpha toxin or dermonecrotic toxin) leading to the loss of both pathogenicity and resistance to the reactions of immune system of organism.

Adaptogenic activity

Mumiye actively influences the biochemical and physiological intracellular processes in liver, heart, brain, stomach, intestine, adrenal cortex and other vital organs thus increasing endurance and adaptive capacity of organism to negative endogenic and exogenic influences as well as physical exercises. (Adaptogenic activity of mumiye is connected with the complex of macro- and micronutrients present in it. Other factors that contribute to the adaptogenic activity of mumiye are the activation of pituitary-adrenocortical axis system and its neurotropic (adrenopositive) effect). The potential to increase adaptive capacity of organism and to resist negative endogenic and exogenic influences result in a slight anti-tumor effect of Mumiye.

Anti-inflammatory effect

Mumiye demonstrated pronounced anti-inflammatory effects that manifest themselves both in the exudative and proliferative phases of inflammation. Internal and topical administration have a therapeutic effect in cases of burns when necrosis and autointoxication resulting from resorption of toxins and patholysis are observed alongside with the regularly exhibited symptoms. Mumiye decreases the reactivity of capillaries, regulates vascular permeability reducing exudation and relieving edema (The suppression of lipids peroxidation in mitochondria is the principal factor of anti-inflammatory action of Mumiye. Thus, the preparation has a membrane-stabilizing action. Anti-inflammatory action of Mumiye is attributable to its effect on pituitary-adrenocortical axis system and catecholamines metabolism, its regenerative action, and antibacterial, antitoxic, antihypoxic and adaptogenic effects).

Effect on the trophic processes

Mumiye is a stimulator of regenerative processes. Therapeutic effect of the preparation is demonstrated in cases of stomach and intestine ulcer. In such cases, increased dosage prevents dystrophic changes without improving reparative processes (Large doses of Mumiye amplify degradation of catecholamines and inhibit their production, thus, having a protective and preventive effect). Therapeutic doses of Mumiye decrease the size and degree of ulcers. (Small doses of Mumiye boost adrenaline and noradrenaline production in the stomach mucosa. Mumiye contributes to the regeneration and normalization of trophic processes in case of decreased catecholamines, when dystrophic process takes place).

Effect on bone and skeletal muscles regeneration

Mumiye accelerates the formation of callus and shortens the period of consolidation by 7-10 days. It also stimulates absorption of phosphorus by callus and increases alkaline phosphatase, calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels in blood. Mumiye produces noticeable improvement of the injured muscle regeneration. On the one hand, it accelerates the healing of the muscular wound, on the other hand, it causes a significant change in correlations between muscles and connective tissues in the bone regenerate by increasing the amount of connective tissue (mumiye stimulates myoblasts and fibroblasts proliferation, accelerates growth of fibroblasts and secondary differentiation of myoblasts resulting in high concentrations of fibrocytes and collagen fibers in the bone regenerate). Such features as stimulation of nucleic acids synthesis and acceleration of the mitotic phase of the cell cycle account for the influence of Mumiye on regeneration of soft tissues.

Effectiveness in cases of traumatic neuritis

In patients with traumatic neuritis Mumiye shortens the healing process by 6-8 days. (The therapeutic effect in cases of injuries and inflammation of peripheral nerve trunks is the result of Mumiye's favorable influence on trophicity of the nerve tissue, overall effect on the functions of CNS and facilitation of the impulse activity of intercalary neurons of spinal cord). Concomitant administration of Mumiye and Lydazum leads to the complete functional recovery, normalization of motional activity and trophicity of the tissue. Neither connective tissue overgrowth around nerve trunk or sheath, nor epineurium or perineurium thickening is observed in such cases. A considerable regeneration of axons is observed. The overgrowth of connective tissue in nerve sheath and acute degenerative changes of axons are present in the location of the injury if no such administration takes place.

The study of pharmacology of mineral and organic constituents of Mumiye demonstrate that its therapeutic effect generally depends on the characteristics of its components (including the content and presence of each component in Mumiye). The manifold manifestation of the product's therapeutic effect is the result of simultaneous actions of all of its components that are triggered by various forms of interaction between them.